Political Solutions to Violent Terrorist/Liberation Struggles. The Journey New Film


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Political Solutions to Violent Terrorist/Liberation Struggles


Endgame (2009 film)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Endgame
Endgame film.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed byPete Travis
Produced byHal Vogel
Written byPaula Milne
StarringWilliam Hurt
Chiwetel Ejiofor
Jonny Lee Miller
Mark Strong
Music byMartin Phipps
CinematographyDavid Odd
Edited byClive Barrett
Dominic Strevens
Distributed byTarget Entertainment
Release date
Running time
101 minutes
CountryUnited Kingdom
LanguageEnglish
Endgame is a 2009 British film directed by Pete Travis from a script by Paula Milne, based upon the book The Fall of Apartheid by Robert Harvey. The film is produced by Daybreak Pictures and reunites Travis with Vantage Point actor William Hurt. It also stars Chiwetel EjioforJonny Lee Miller and Mark Strong. The film dramatises the final days of apartheid in South Africa. It was filmed at locations in Reading, BerkshireEngland and Cape TownSouth Africa in the first half of 2008 and was completed in December that year.
The film had its world premiere on 18 January 2009 at the Sundance Film Festival and was broadcast on Channel 4 on 4 May 2009. It will also have an international theatrical release, the distribution of which is handled by Target Entertainment Group.









Extent of secret links between government and IRA revealed














Thatcher started IRA talks in 1990

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The Independent Online

Margaret Thatcher's government opened top-secret contacts with the IRA and Sinn Fein in 1990, four years before the IRA cease-fire, according to her former Northern Ireland Secretary, Peter Brooke.
Government accounts of the secret link have always implied that the key sequence of contacts began in 1993. Ministers main-tain that the contact began in earnest only in February of that year, following a message from Sinn Fein's Martin McGuinness that the conflict was over.
But now Peter Brooke has revealed that, as Northern Ireland Secretary, he was involved in the decision to open the contact in 1990, only six years after Mrs Thatcher had herself been the victim of the IRA's failed assassination attempt at Brighton.
In February 1994, as Gerry Adams visited America, Lady Thatcher, as she had become, criticised President Clinton saying: "No democracy should have any truck with terrorists."
It was in 1990 that Sir Ian Gow, the Tory MP who was one of Mrs Thatcher's closest friends, was the victim of an IRA assassination. The IRA killed dozens of people and set off hundreds of bombs before the contacts came to a halt late in 1993.
According to the official account, the confidential channel used to convey messages between the government and the IRA had been in existence for years, but the key sequence of contacts was triggered off only in February 1993 by the alleged message from Mr McGuinness. The present Northern Ireland Secretary, Sir Patrick Mayhew, has described this as the initial originating message.
Mr McGuinness is insistent that he sent no message to this effect, and Mr Brooke said he knows nothing of any such message. Mr McGuinness's claim that the talks began as early as 1990 has now been borne out by Mr Brooke's revelation.

Wednesday, 1 January, 2003, 00:43 GMT
Adams and IRA's secret Whitehall talks
Gerry Adams forms part of an IRA funeral honour guard
Gerry Adams (centre) at an IRA funeral


What happened when Gerry Adams and other republican leaders met the government in 1972? Documents finally released to the public reveal all.
Despite protestations to the contrary over the years, the British Government constantly maintained open channels with the IRA during the worst of the Troubles.
The first major meeting of 1972 when an IRA delegation including Gerry Adams was flown into London is among the most well known.
But documents released under the 30-year-rule reveal for the first time the details of official reaction at the time - and confirm that Mr Adams had an earlier longer meeting with two officials which had given the government hope of a breakthrough amid conflict.
Official and unofficial worlds
Officially, there was no chance either wing of the IRA would be allowed into proposed multi-party talks, on the table during the violence of 1972.

William Whitelaw
William Whitelaw: Sanctioned secret contacts
But in secret, MI6 pursued contacts with the IRA as part of attempts to see if they could be persuaded into a ceasefire.
These secret contacts, also conducted through leading members of the nationalist SDLP, began to bear fruit.
On 18 June, Northern Ireland Secretary William Whitelaw met SDLP MPs John Hume and Paddy Devlin who said they believed the IRA was willing to talk if the government released Gerry Adams, the 23-year-old republican activist held under internment. Viscount Whitelaw agreed and the meeting was on.
Secret rendezvous
According to the papers, the historic meeting took place at the home of Colonel MW McCorkell at Ballyarnett, near the border with Donegal.
IMPRESSION OF ADAMS

 There is no doubt whatever that these two genuinely want a ceasefire and a permanent end to violence - whatever pressures have brought them to this frame of mind, there is also little doubt that now the prospect of peace is there, they have a strong personal incentive to try and get it


Government official Philip John Woodfield
Representing the government was Frank Steele, described in the papers as a government official but known to be an MI6 agent, and Philip John Woodfield of the Northern Ireland Office.
Representing the IRA were Daithi O Conaill (described as David O'Connell in the papers) a senior republican strategist, and Gerry Adams
According to his own account, Mr Woodfield opened the meeting by setting out what the government believed to be the IRA's terms for a ceasefire:



  • Political status for internees
  • An end of "harassment" of republicans by security forces
  • A meeting with the Secretary of State once the ceasefire was in place
    While he refused to offer political status, Viscount Whitelaw was prepared to suspend arrests of republicans and searches of homes.
    On the question of a meeting, Mr Woodfield said: "I said the answer was yes - but the Secretary of State must first be satisfied that the ceasefire was effective.
    IMPRESSION OF ADAMS

     Their response to every argument was reasonable and moderate - their behaviour and attitude appeared to bear no relation to the indiscriminate campaigns of bombing and shooting in which they have both been prominent leaders


    Government official Philip John Woodfield
    "There was a good deal of haggling over the time of a genuine ceasefire. Eventually we settled on 10 days, the minimum which the Secretary of State had authorised."
    According to his notes, Mr Woodfield and Frank Steele had agreed beforehand to try and have a "normal conversation".
    It was a strategy which seems to have helped the meeting last for almost four hours.
    "There is no doubt whatever that these two at least genuinely want a ceasefire and a permanent end to violence," wrote Mr Woodfield.
    1972: KEY EVENTS


    30 Jan: Bloody Sunday
    22 Feb: Aldershot bombing
    24 Mar: Direct rule imposed
    26 June: IRA ceasefire
    7 July: IRA meet Whitelaw
    21 July: Bloody Friday bombing
    31 July: Operation Motorman; Claudy bombing
    "Whatever pressures have brought them to this frame of mind, there is also little doubt that now the prospect of peace is there, they have a strong personal incentive to try and get it.
    "They let drop several remarks that the life of the Provisional IRA man on the run is not a pleasant one."
    Mr Woodfield said the appearance and manner of the men was "respectable and respectful".
    "They easily referred to Mr Whitelaw as the 'Secretary of State' and they addressed me from time to time as 'Sir'," he wrote.
    "They made no bombastic defence of their past and made no attacks on the British Government.
    "Their response to every argument was reasonable and moderate.
    "Their behaviour and attitude appeared to bear no relation to the indiscriminate campaigns of bombing and shooting in which they have both been prominent leaders."
    London talks
    On 26 June, the IRA called a "bilateral truce" and talks followed on 7 July 1972.

     The Secretary of State admitted to being emotionally exhausted - he was clearly depressed and found the experience of meeting and talking to Mr Mac Stiofain very unpleasant


    Prime Ministerial briefing, 1972
    Arriving at the secret meeting at Cheyne Walk in London were Sean Mac Stiofain, the then IRA chief of staff, Daithi O Conaill, Martin McGuinness, Gerry Adams, Seamus Twomey and Ivor Bell.
    The well documented meeting was a disaster. Sean Mac Stiofain effectively demanded the withdrawal of British security forces and the right for "Irish self determination", the end of Northern Ireland as the IRA saw it, within a few years.
    "Mr Mac Stiofain was very much in charge," reveals the prime ministerial briefing.
    "He made it clear that the crucial item was the declaration of intent. If that was got right, the rest would follow. So it was only worth talking about that."
    Viscount Whitelaw said the demands could not be met because they breached his obligations to act in accordance to the will of the people of Northern Ireland.
    "The IRA leaders said the commitment should never have been given," records the paper. "What had been enacted by Parliament could be repealed by Parliament."
    While there had been optimism after the first meeting, there was now a sense of failure.
    "The Secretary of State admitted to being emotionally exhausted by the afternoon's work," the papers recall.
    "He was clearly depressed at the outcome of the meeting and found the experience of meeting and talking to Mr Mac Stiofain very unpleasant."


  • Find out more about the IRA's history and watch archive BBC footage

    Papers released under the 30 year rule reveal Heath government plans to expel hundreds of Catholics from NI and create a Protestant-only province


    NI secrets revealed




    Previous revelations




    Background



    IN-DEPTH REPORTS




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